Teaching Hours 75
Unit 1 Introduction to Biology (5 Hours )
- Nature and scope of Biology
- Branch and relation with other sciences
- General approach to understand life processes
Unit 2 Origin and evolution of life (20 Hours )
- Life and its origin
- Theories of origin of life .
- Oparin and Haldane's Theory
- Miller and Urey's experiment.
- Meaning of evolution, organic evolution
- Evidences of evolution, structural, anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological & Biochemical
- Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism.
- Human evolution.
Unit 3 Biodiversity (15 Hours )
Meaning of biodiversity, faunal diversity of Nepal
- Protista: Characteristics and classification of phylum Protozoa upto class with examples: Habit and habitat, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium vivax (a concept of falciparum).
- Animalia: General characters and classification of the following phyla (upto class) with examples Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria). Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes). Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata Earthworm (Pherstima posthuma): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, excretory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.
Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, circulatory, respiratory Reproductive
Unit 4 Biota and their Environment (15 Hours)
- Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil. Sources of pollution, their effects and control measures Hazards of pesticides
- Animal behavior : Taxes, reflexes and reflex action, dominance and leadership, migratory behaviour of fish and bird.
- Adaptation: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial (arboreal and volant)
Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, threatened, vulnerable and endangered species, few endangered species in Nepal. Conservation practices (National parks, wildlife reserves and hunting reserves Ways of conservation and causes of extinction
- Human responsibility for the protection of earth.