# Physics 12 syllabus

Unit 1: Waves and Optics (40 Teaching Hours)

Wave (23 Hrs.)

1. Wave Motion: (4 Hours)

Wave motion / Longitudinal and transverse waves / Progressive and stationary waves / Mathematical description of a wave.

1. Mechanical waves: (5 Hours)

Speed of wave motion / Velocity of sound in solid and liquid / Velocity of sound in gas / Laplace's correction / Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound.

1. Waves in Pipes and Strings: (6 Hours)

Stationary waves in closed and open pipes / Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes / End correction in pipes / Resonance tube experiment / Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string / Vibration of string and overtones / Laws of vibration of fixed string.

1. Acoustic Phenomena: (8 Hours)

Sound waves / Pressure amplitude, Characteristics of sound / Intensity / Loudness, quality and pitch / Beats / Doppler's effect / Infrasonic and ultrasonic waves / Noise pollution: Sources, health hazard and control.

Physical Optics: (17 Hours)

1. Nature and Propagation of Light: (6 Hours)

Nature and sources of light / Electromagnetic spectrum / Huygen's principle / Reflection and refraction according to wave theory / Velocity of light / Foucault's method / Michelson's method.

1. Interference: (4 Hours)

Phenomenon of interference / Coherent sources / Young's two slit experiment / Newton's ring.

1. Diffraction: (4 Hours)

Diffraction from a single slit / Diffraction pattern of image / Diffraction grating / Resolving power of optical instruments.

1. Polarization: (3 Hours)

Phenomenon of polarization / Brewster's law / transverse nature of light / Polaroid.

Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism: (55 Teaching Hours)

Current Electricity: (20 Hours)

1. D.C. Circuit: (9 Hours)

Electric Currents / Drift velocity and its relation with current / Ohm's law/ Electrical Resistance / Resistivity / Conductivity / Super conductors / Perfect Conductors / Current – Voltage relations / Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance / Resistances in series and parallel / Potential Divider / Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter / Ohmmeter / Electromotive force / Emf of a source / Internal resistance / Work and power in electrical circuits / Joule's law and its verification.

1. Electrical circuits: (7 Hours)

Kirchhoff's laws / Wheatstone bridge circuit / P.O. Box / Meter Bridge / Potentiometer, Comparison of e.m.f's / measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

1. Thermoelectric Effect: (2 Hours)

Seebeck Effect / Thermocouples / Peltier Effect / Variation of thermoelectric emf with temperature / thermopile / Thomson effect.

1. Chemical Effect of Current: (2 Hours)

Magnetic Field of Current: (35 Hours)

1. Magnetic Field: (14 Hours)

Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux / Oersted's experiment / Force on moving charge / Force on Conductor / Force and Torque on rectangular coil / Moving coil galvanometer / Hall effect / Magnetic field of a moving charge / Biot and Savert law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid / Ampere's law and its application to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (iii) a toroidal solenoid / Forces between two parallel conductors carrying current – definition of ampere.

1. Magnetic Properties of Materials: (5 Hours)

Elements of earth magnetism and their variation / Dip and Dip circle / Flux density in magnetic material / Relative permeability / Susceptibility / Hysteresis / Dia-, Para- and Ferro-magnetic materials.

1. Electromagnetic Induction: (8 Hours)

Faraday's laws / Induced electric fields / Lenz's law / Motional electromotive force / AC generators / eddy currents / Self - inductance and Mutual inductance / Energy stored in an inductor / Transformer.

1. Alternating Currents: (8 Hours)

Peak and RMS value of AC current and voltage / AC through resistor, capacitor and inductor / Phaser diagram / Series circuits containing combination of resistor, capacitor and inductor / series resonance / Quality factor / Power in AC circuits / Power factor / choke coil.

MODERN PHYSICS: (55 Teaching Hours)

1. Electrons and Protons: (10 Hours)

Electrons: Millikan's Oil drop experiment / Gaseous discharge at various pressure / Cathode rays / Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields / Thomson's experiment to determine specific charge of electron / Protons: Quantum nature of radiation / Einstein's photoelectric equation / Stopping potential / Measurement of Plank's constant: Millikan's experiment

1. Solids and Semiconductor Devices: (11 Hours)

Structure of solids / Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only) / Difference between metals, inductors and semiconductors using band theory / Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors / P-N junction / Semiconductor diode / Characteristics in forward and reverse bias / Full wave rectification / Filter circuit / Zener diode / Transistor: Common emitter characteristics / Logic gates: NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR / Nanotechnology (Introductory idea)

1. Quantization of Energy: (9 Hours)

Bohr's theory of Hydrogen atom / Spectral series / Excitation and Ionization potentials / Energy level / Emission and absorption spectra / De Broglie theory: Duality / Uncertainty Principle / Lasers: He-Ne laser, Nature and production, properties and uses / X-rays: Nature and production: Uses: x-rays, x-rays diffraction / Bragg's law

1. Nuclear Physics: (6 Hours)

Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus / Nuclear density / Mass number / Atomic number / Atomic mass / Isotopes / Einstein's mass-energy relation / Mass defect / Binding energy / Fission and Fusion