Unit 1: Waves and Optics (40 Teaching Hours)
Wave (23 Hrs.)
Wave motion / Longitudinal and transverse waves / Progressive and stationary waves / Mathematical description of a wave.
Speed of wave motion / Velocity of sound in solid and liquid / Velocity of sound in gas / Laplace's correction / Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound.
Stationary waves in closed and open pipes / Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes / End correction in pipes / Resonance tube experiment / Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string / Vibration of string and overtones / Laws of vibration of fixed string.
Sound waves / Pressure amplitude, Characteristics of sound / Intensity / Loudness, quality and pitch / Beats / Doppler's effect / Infrasonic and ultrasonic waves / Noise pollution: Sources, health hazard and control.
Physical Optics: (17 Hours)
Nature and sources of light / Electromagnetic spectrum / Huygen's principle / Reflection and refraction according to wave theory / Velocity of light / Foucault's method / Michelson's method.
Phenomenon of interference / Coherent sources / Young's two slit experiment / Newton's ring.
Diffraction from a single slit / Diffraction pattern of image / Diffraction grating / Resolving power of optical instruments.
Phenomenon of polarization / Brewster's law / transverse nature of light / Polaroid.
Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism: (55 Teaching Hours)
Current Electricity: (20 Hours)
Electric Currents / Drift velocity and its relation with current / Ohm's law/ Electrical Resistance / Resistivity / Conductivity / Super conductors / Perfect Conductors / Current – Voltage relations / Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance / Resistances in series and parallel / Potential Divider / Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter / Ohmmeter / Electromotive force / Emf of a source / Internal resistance / Work and power in electrical circuits / Joule's law and its verification.
Kirchhoff's laws / Wheatstone bridge circuit / P.O. Box / Meter Bridge / Potentiometer, Comparison of e.m.f's / measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Seebeck Effect / Thermocouples / Peltier Effect / Variation of thermoelectric emf with temperature / thermopile / Thomson effect.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis / Faraday's constant / Verification of Faraday laws of electrolysis.
Magnetic Field of Current: (35 Hours)
Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux / Oersted's experiment / Force on moving charge / Force on Conductor / Force and Torque on rectangular coil / Moving coil galvanometer / Hall effect / Magnetic field of a moving charge / Biot and Savert law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid / Ampere's law and its application to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (iii) a toroidal solenoid / Forces between two parallel conductors carrying current – definition of ampere.
Elements of earth magnetism and their variation / Dip and Dip circle / Flux density in magnetic material / Relative permeability / Susceptibility / Hysteresis / Dia-, Para- and Ferro-magnetic materials.
Faraday's laws / Induced electric fields / Lenz's law / Motional electromotive force / AC generators / eddy currents / Self - inductance and Mutual inductance / Energy stored in an inductor / Transformer.
Peak and RMS value of AC current and voltage / AC through resistor, capacitor and inductor / Phaser diagram / Series circuits containing combination of resistor, capacitor and inductor / series resonance / Quality factor / Power in AC circuits / Power factor / choke coil.
MODERN PHYSICS: (55 Teaching Hours)
Electrons: Millikan's Oil drop experiment / Gaseous discharge at various pressure / Cathode rays / Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields / Thomson's experiment to determine specific charge of electron / Protons: Quantum nature of radiation / Einstein's photoelectric equation / Stopping potential / Measurement of Plank's constant: Millikan's experiment
Structure of solids / Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only) / Difference between metals, inductors and semiconductors using band theory / Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors / P-N junction / Semiconductor diode / Characteristics in forward and reverse bias / Full wave rectification / Filter circuit / Zener diode / Transistor: Common emitter characteristics / Logic gates: NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR / Nanotechnology (Introductory idea)
Bohr's theory of Hydrogen atom / Spectral series / Excitation and Ionization potentials / Energy level / Emission and absorption spectra / De Broglie theory: Duality / Uncertainty Principle / Lasers: He-Ne laser, Nature and production, properties and uses / X-rays: Nature and production: Uses: x-rays, x-rays diffraction / Bragg's law
Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus / Nuclear density / Mass number / Atomic number / Atomic mass / Isotopes / Einstein's mass-energy relation / Mass defect / Binding energy / Fission and Fusion
Alpha particles / Beta particles / Gamma rays / Laws of radioactive disintegration / Half-life and decay constant / Geiger-Muller Tube / Radio Carbon dating / Medical use of nuclear radiation / Health hazards and safety precautions
Sources of energy / Conservation and degradation of energy / Transformation of energy / Nuclear energy / Energy released from fission and fusion / Thermal and hydroelectric power / Wind energy / Biofuels / Solar energy / Solar constant / Solar devices / Global energy consumption pattern and demands / Energy use in Nepal / Fuels and pollution / Global warming / Acid rain
Particles and antiparticles / Quarks and Leptons / Baryons / Mesons / Universe-Hubble law / Big Band / Critical density / Dark matter