Physics 12 syllabus

Unit 1: Waves and Optics (40 Teaching Hours)

Wave (23 Hours)

1. Wave Motion (4 Hours)

  • Wave Motion
  • Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
  • Progressive and Stationary Waves
  • Mathematical description of a wave.

 

2. Mechanical Waves (5 Hours)

  • Speed of Wave Motion
  • Velocity of Sound in Solid and Liquid
  • Velocity of Sound in Gas
  • Laplace's CorrectionEffect of Temperature, Pressure, Humidity on Velocity of Sound.

 

3. Waves in Pipes and Strings (6 Hours)

  • Stationary Waves in Closed and Open Pipes
  • Harmonics and Overtones in Closed and Open Organ Pipes
  • End Correction in Pipes
  • Resonance Tube Experiment
  • Velocity of Transverse Waves along a Stretched String
  • Vibration of String and Overtones
  • Laws of Vibration of Fixed String.

 

4. Acaustic Phenomena (8 Hours)

  • Sound Waves
  • Pressure Amplitude
  • Characteristics of Sound
  • Intensity
  • Loudness
  • Quality and Pitch
  • Beats
  • Doppler's Effect
  • Infrasonic and Ultrasonic Waves
  • Noise Pollution: Sources, Health Hazard and Control.

 

Physical Optics (17 Hours)

5. Nature and Propagation of Light (6 Hours)

  • Nature and Sources of Light
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Huygen's Principle
  • Reflection and Refraction According to Wave Theory
  • Velocity of Light
  • Foucault's Method
  • Michelson's Method.

 

6. Interference (4 Hours)

  • Phenomenon of Interference
  • Coherent Sources
  • Young's Two Slit Experiment
  • Newton's Ring.

 

 

  1. Diffraction: (4 Hours)

Diffraction from a single slit / Diffraction pattern of image / Diffraction grating / Resolving power of optical instruments.

  1. Polarization: (3 Hours)

Phenomenon of polarization / Brewster's law / transverse nature of light / Polaroid.

Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism: (55 Teaching Hours)

Current Electricity: (20 Hours)

  1. D.C. Circuit: (9 Hours)

Electric Currents / Drift velocity and its relation with current / Ohm's law/ Electrical Resistance / Resistivity / Conductivity / Super conductors / Perfect Conductors / Current – Voltage relations / Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance / Resistances in series and parallel / Potential Divider / Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter / Ohmmeter / Electromotive force / Emf of a source / Internal resistance / Work and power in electrical circuits / Joule's law and its verification.

  1. Electrical circuits: (7 Hours)

Kirchhoff's laws / Wheatstone bridge circuit / P.O. Box / Meter Bridge / Potentiometer, Comparison of e.m.f's / measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

  1. Thermoelectric Effect: (2 Hours)

Seebeck Effect / Thermocouples / Peltier Effect / Variation of thermoelectric emf with temperature / thermopile / Thomson effect.

  1. Chemical Effect of Current: (2 Hours)

Faraday's laws of electrolysis / Faraday's constant / Verification of Faraday laws of electrolysis.

Magnetic Field of Current: (35 Hours)

  1. Magnetic Field: (14 Hours)

Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux / Oersted's experiment / Force on moving charge / Force on Conductor / Force and Torque on rectangular coil / Moving coil galvanometer / Hall effect / Magnetic field of a moving charge / Biot and Savert law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid / Ampere's law and its application to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (iii) a toroidal solenoid / Forces between two parallel conductors carrying current – definition of ampere.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Materials: (5 Hours)

  • Elements of earth magnetism and their variation
  • Dip and Dip circle
  • Flux density in magnetic material
  • Relative permeability
  • Susceptibility
  • Hysteresis
  • Dia-, Para- and Ferro-magnetic materials.
  1. Electromagnetic Induction: (8 Hours)

Faraday's laws / Induced electric fields / Lenz's law / Motional electromotive force / AC generators / eddy currents / Self - inductance and Mutual inductance / Energy stored in an inductor / Transformer.

  1. Alternating Currents: (8 Hours)

Peak and RMS value of AC current and voltage / AC through resistor, capacitor and inductor / Phaser diagram / Series circuits containing combination of resistor, capacitor and inductor / series resonance / Quality factor / Power in AC circuits / Power factor / choke coil.

 

MODERN PHYSICS: (55 Teaching Hours)

  1. Electrons and Protons: (10 Hours)

Electrons: Millikan's Oil drop experiment / Gaseous discharge at various pressure / Cathode rays / Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields / Thomson's experiment to determine specific charge of electron / Protons: Quantum nature of radiation / Einstein's photoelectric equation / Stopping potential / Measurement of Plank's constant: Millikan's experiment

  1. Solids and Semiconductor Devices: (11 Hours)

Structure of solids / Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only) / Difference between metals, inductors and semiconductors using band theory / Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors / P-N junction / Semiconductor diode / Characteristics in forward and reverse bias / Full wave rectification / Filter circuit / Zener diode / Transistor: Common emitter characteristics / Logic gates: NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR / Nanotechnology (Introductory idea)

  1. Quantization of Energy: (9 Hours)

Bohr's theory of Hydrogen atom / Spectral series / Excitation and Ionization potentials / Energy level / Emission and absorption spectra / De Broglie theory: Duality / Uncertainty Principle / Lasers: He-Ne laser, Nature and production, properties and uses / X-rays: Nature and production: Uses: x-rays, x-rays diffraction / Bragg's law

  1. Nuclear Physics: (6 Hours)

Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus / Nuclear density / Mass number / Atomic number / Atomic mass / Isotopes / Einstein's mass-energy relation / Mass defect / Binding energy / Fission and Fusion

  1. Radioactivity: (7 Hours)

Alpha particles / Beta particles / Gamma rays / Laws of radioactive disintegration / Half-life and decay constant / Geiger-Muller Tube / Radio Carbon dating / Medical use of nuclear radiation / Health hazards and safety precautions

  1. Nuclear Energy and Other Sources of Energy: (9 Hours)

Sources of energy / Conservation and degradation of energy / Transformation of energy / Nuclear energy / Energy released from fission and fusion / Thermal and hydroelectric power / Wind energy / Biofuels / Solar energy / Solar constant / Solar devices / Global energy consumption pattern and demands / Energy use in Nepal / Fuels and pollution / Global warming / Acid rain

  1. Particle Physics and Cosmology: (3 Hours)

Particles and antiparticles / Quarks and Leptons / Baryons / Mesons / Universe-Hubble law / Big Band / Critical density / Dark matter