- Address : Jhamsikhel,Kathmandu
- Call us : +9841295315
- Email : [email protected]

- Need for measurements

- System of units

- S.I. unit

- Precision and significant figures

- Dimensions

- Main uses of dimensional equations. **2. Vectors (6 Hours)**

- Graphical presentation of vectors

- Addition and subtraction of vectors

- Parallelogram, triangle and polygon laws of vectors

- Resolution of vectors

- Unit vectors

- Scalar and vector products. **3. Kinematics (3 Hours)**

- Uniform and non-uniform motion

- Average velocity and acceleration

- Instantaneous velocity and acceleration

- Equation of motion (graphical treatment)

- Motion of a freely falling body

- Relative velocity

- Projectile motion. **4. Laws of Motion (8 Hours)**

- Newton's laws of motion

- Inertia

- Force

- Linear momentum

- Impulse

- Conservation of linear momentum

- Free-body diagrams

- Solid frictions: Laws of solid friction and their verifications

- Application of Newton's laws: Particles in equilibrium, dynamics of particles. **5. Work and Energy (4 Hours)**

- Work

- Work done by a constant force and a variable force

- Power

- Energy: Kinetic energy

- Work- energy theorem, Potential energy

- Conservation of energy

- Conservative and non-conservative forces

- Elastic and inelastic collision. **6. Circular Motion (5 Hours)**

- Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration

- Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration

- Centripetal acceleration, centripetal force

- Conical pendulum

- Motion in a vertical circle

- Motion of cars and cyclist round a banked track. **7. Gravitation (9 Hours)**

- Newton's laws of gravitation

- Acceleration due to gravity, g

- Mass and weight

- Gravitational field strength

- Variation in value of 'g' due to altitude, depth and rotation of earth

- Weightlessness

- Motion of a satellites: Orbital velocity, height and time period of a satellite, geostationary satellite, potential and

kinetic energy of a satellite

- Gravitational potential: Gravitational potential energy

- Escape velocity

- Black holes.**8. Equilibrium (2 Hours)**

Moment of forces/ Torque/ Torque due to a couple/ Center of mass/ Center of gravity/ Conditions of equilibrium. **9. Rotational Dynamics (8 Hours)**

Rotation of rigid bodies/ Equation of angular motion/ Relation between linear and angular kinematics/ Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid bodies/ moment of inertia: Radius of gyration, Moment of inertia of a uniform rod/ Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body/ Work and power in rotational motion/ angular momentum/ Conservation of angular momentum. **10. Elasticity (6 Hours)**

Hooke's law: Force constant, Verification of Hooke's law/ Stress/ Strain/ Elasticity and plasticity/ Elastic modulus: Young modulus and its determination, Bulk modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Elastic potential energy.**11. Periodic Motion (6 Hours)**

Oscillatory motion/ Circle of reference/ Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)/ Energy in SHM/ Application of SHM/ Motion of a body suspended from coiled spring, angular SHM/ simple pendulum/ Damped oscillation/ Forced oscillation and resonance. **12. Fluid Mechanics (10 Hours)****Fluid statics:** Density/ Pressure in a fluid/ Archimedes Principle/ Buoyancy**Surface tension:** Molecular theory of Surface tension/ Surface energy/ Angle of contact and capillarity/ Measurement of coefficient of surface tension by capillary tube method.**Fluid Dynamics:** Newton's formula for viscosity in a liquid/ Coefficient of viscosity/ Laminar and turbulent flow/ Poiseuille's formula (method of dimensions)/ Stokes law and its applications/ Measurement of viscosity of viscous liquid/ Equation of continuity/ Bernoulli's equation and its applications. **Unit-2 Heat and thermodynamics (****40 teaching hours)****13. Heat and temperature (5 Hours)**

Concept of temperature/ Thermal equilibrium, Thermal expansion: linear expansion, cubical expansions and their relation: Measurement of linear expansivity,

Liquid Expansion: Absolute and apparent expansion of liquid, Measurement of absolute expansivity by Dulong and Petit method. **14. Quantity of heat (5 Hours)**

Heat capacity and specific heat capacity/ Newton's law of cooling/ Measurement of specific heat capacity of solids by the method of mixture and of liquids by the method cooling. Change of phases: Latent heat/ Specific latent heat of fusion, and vaporization and their measurements by the method of mixture.**15. Thermal properties of matter (8 Hours)**

Equation of state: Ideal gas equation/ P-V diagram/ Molecular properties of matter/ Kinetic- molecular model of an ideal gas: Derivation of pressure exerted by gas, average translational kinetic energy of a gas molecule/ Boltzman constant, Root mean square speed/ Heat capacities: heat capacities of gases and solids. **16. Hygrometry (3 Hours)**

Saturated and unsaturated vapor pressure/ Behavior of saturated vapor/ Boiling point/ Triple point and critical point/ Dew point, Absolute humidity/ Relative humidity and its determination. **17. Transfer of heat (4 Hours)**

Conduction, Thermal conductivity and its determination by Searle's method/ Convection: convective coefficient Radiation: Ideal radiator/ Black body radiation/ Stefan-Boltzmann law. **18. First law of thermodynamics (9 Hours)**

Thermodynamic systems/ Work done during volume change, Heat and work/ Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics/ Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, Isochoric, Isothermal, Isobaric processes/ Heat capacities of ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them/ Isothermal and Adiabatic processes for an ideal gas. **19. Second law of thermodynamics (6 Hours)**

Direction of Thermodynamic processes/ Second law of thermodynamics/ Heat engines/ Internal combustion engines: Otto Cycle, Diesel cycle/ Carnot cycle/ Kelvin temperature scale/ Refrigerators/ Entropy and disorder (introduction only)

**20. Photometry, Reflection at curved mirrors (2 Hours)**

Convex and concave mirrors/ Image in Spherical mirrors, Mirrors formula/ Real and Virtual images. **21. Refraction at plane surfaces (3 Hours)**

Laws of refraction: Refractive index/ Relation between refractive indices/ Lateral shift/ Total internal reflection and its applications/ critical angle/ optical fiber.**22. Refraction through prisms (3 Hours)**

Minimum deviation/ Relation between Angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index / Deviation in small angle prism. **23. Lenses (4 Hours)**

Spherical lenses/ thin lens formula/ Lens maker's formula/ Power of a lens/ Combination of thin lenses in contact. **24. Dispersion (3 Hours)**

Spectrum/ Spectrometer/ Pure spectrum/ Dispersive power/ Achromatic lenses/ Condition for achromatic lenses in contact, Chromatic aberration Spherical aberration/ Scattering of light-blue color of the sky.**25. Optical instruments (5 Hours)**

The human eye/ Defects of vision and their correction/ Visual angle/ Angular magnification/ Magnifier/ Camera/ Compound microscope, Astronomical Telescope (reflection and refractive type) ** Unit-4 Electrostatics (****20 teaching hours)****26. Electrostatics, Electric field & Potential (13 Hours)**

Electric charge: Electric charges/ Conductors and insulators/ Charging by induction, Coulomb's law- Force between two point charges, Force between multiple electric charges.

Electric fields/ Calculation of electric field due to point charges/ Field lines. Gauss Law: Electric Flux/ Gauss Law and its application: Field of a charged sphere, line charge, plane sheet of charge.

Potential and potential difference, Potential due to a point charge/ Equipotential lines and surfaces/ Potential gradient/ Potential energy, Electron volt.**27. Capacitance and dielectrics (7 Hours)**

Capacitance and capacitor/ Charging and discharging of capacitor through a resistor/ Parallel plate capacitor/ Combination of capacitors/ Energy of charged capacitor/ Effect of a dielectric/ Molecular theory of induced charges/ Polarization and displacement.