# Physics 11 syllabus

## Unit - 1 Mechanics (70 teaching hours)

### 1. Units and Dimensions (3 Hours)

Need for Measurements
System of Units
SI Units
Precision and Significant Figures
Dimensions
Main uses of Dimensional Equation.

### 2. Vectors (6 Hours)

- Graphical presentation of Vectors
- Addition and Subtraction of vectors
- Parallelogram, triangle and polygon laws of vectors
- Resolution of vectors
- Unit vectors
- Scalar and Vector products.

### 3. Kinematics (3 Hours)

- Uniform and non - uniform motion
- Average velocity and acceleration
- Instataneous velocity and acceleration
- Equation of motion (Graphical treatment)
- Motion of a freely falling body
- Relative Velocity
- Projectile Motion.

### 4. Laws of Motion (8 Hours)

• Newton's Laws of Motion
• Inertia
• Force
• Linear Momentum
• Impulse
• Conservation of Linear Momentum
• Free - Diagrams
• Solid Frictions: Laws of Solid Friction and Their Verifications
• Application of Newton's Laws
• Particles in Equilibrium, Dynamics of Particles.

### 5. Work and Energy (4 Hours)

- Work
- Work done by a constant force and a variable force
- Power
- Energy : Kinetic Energy
- Work - Energy theorem, Potential Energy
- Conservation of Energy
- Conservative and non - conservative forces
- Elastic and Inelastic Collision.

### 6. Circular Motion (5 Hours)

- Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration
- Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration
- Centripetal acceleration, centripetal force
- Conical Pendulum
- Motion in a vertical circle
- Motion of cars and cyclist round a banked track.

### 7. Gravitaion (9 Hours)

- Newton's laws of gravitation
- Acceleration due to gravity, g
- Mass and weight
- Gravitational Field Strength
- Variation in value of 'g' due to altitude, depth and rotation of earth
- Weightlessness
- Motion of a satellites
- Orbital velocity, height and time period of a satellite
- Geostationary satellite
- Potential and Kinetic energy of satellite
- Gravitational potential: Gravitational Potential Energy
- Escape Velocity
- Black holes.

### 8. Equilibrium (2 Hours)

- Moment of forces
- Torque
- Torque due to a couple
- Center of mass
- Center of gravity
- Conditions of equilibrium.

### 9. Rotational Dynamics (8 Hours)

- Rotation of rigid bodies
- Equation of angular motion
- Relation between linear and angular kinematics
- Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid bodies
- Moment of inertia
- Moment of inertia of a uniform rod
- Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body
- Work and power in rotational motion
- Angular momentum
- Conservation of angular momentum.

### 10. Elasticity (6 Hours)

- Hooke's law
- Force constant
- Verification of Hooke's law
- Stress/ Strain
- Elasticity and plasticity
- Elastic modulus: Young modulus and its determination
- Bulk modulus, Shear modulus
- Poisson's ratio
- Elastic potential energy.

### 11. Periodic Motion (6 Hours)

- Oscillatory Motion
- Circle of reference
- Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
- Energy in SHM
- Application of SHM
- Motion of a body suspended from coiled spring
- Angular SHM
- Simple Pendulum
- Damped Oscillation
- Forced Oscillation
- Resonance.

### 12. Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Statics:
- Density
- Pressure in a fluid
- Archimedes Principle
- Buoyancy.
Surface Tension:
- Molecular Theory of Surface Tension
- Surface Energy
- Angle of contact and capillarity
- Measurement of coefficient of surface tension by capillary tube method.
Fluid Dynamics:
- Newton's formula for viscosity in a liquid
- Coefficient of viscosity
- Laminar and turbulent flow
- Poiseuille's formula (method of dimensions)
- Stokes Law and its applications
- Measurement of viscosity of viscous liquid
- Equation of continuity
- Bernoulli's equation and its applications.

## Unit-2 Heat and thermodynamics (40 teaching hours)

### 13. Heat and Temperature (5 Hours)

• Concept of Temperature
• Thermal Equilibrium
• Thermal Expansion
• Linear Expansion
• Cubical Expansions and their relation
• Measurement of Linear Expansivity
• Liquid Expansion
• Absolute and aparent expansion of liquid
• Measurement of Absolute Expansivity by Dulong and Petit Method.

### 14. Quantity of Heat (5 Hours)

• Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity
• Newton's Law of Cooling
• Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity of Solids by Method of Mixture and of Liquids by the Method of Cooling
• Change of Phases
• Latent Heat
• Specific Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization and their Measurement by the Method of Mixture.

### 15. Thermal Properties of Matter (8 Hours)

• Equation of state
• Ideal gas equation
• P-V diagram
• Molecular properties of matter
• Kinetic- molecular model of an ideal gas
• Derivation of pressure exerted by gas
• Average translational kinetic energy of a gas molecule
• Boltzman constant
• Root mean square speed
• Heat capacities: heat capacities of gases and solids.

### 16. Hygrometry (3 Hours)

- Saturated and unsaturated vapor pressure

- Behavior of saturated vapor

- Boiling point

- Triple point and critical point

- Dew point

- Absolute humidity

- Relative humidity and its determination.

### 17. Transfer of Heat (4 Hours)

• Conduction
• Thermal conductivity and its determination by Searle's method
• Convection: convective coefficient
• Stefan-Boltzmann law.

### 18. First Law of Thermodynamics (9 Hours)

• Thermodynamic systems
• Work done during volume change
• Heat and work
• Internal energy
• First law of thermodynamics
• Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, Isochoric, Isothermal, Isobaric processes
• Heat capacities of ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them
• Isothermal and Adiabatic processes for an ideal gas.

### 19. Second Law of Thermodynamics (6 Hours)

• Direction of Thermodynamic processes
• Second law of thermodynamics
• Heat engines
• Internal combustion engines: Otto Cycle
• Diesel cycle
• Carnot cycle
• Kelvin temperature scale
• Refrigerators
• Entropy and disorder (introduction only)

# Unit-3 Geometrical Optics (20 teaching hours)

### 20. Photometry, Reflection at Curved Mirrors (2 Hours)

• Convex and Concave Mirrors
• Image in Spherical Mirros
• Mirrors Formula
• Real and Virtual Images

### 21. Refraction at Plane Surfaces (3 Hours)

• Laws of Refraction
• Refractive Index
• Relation between Refractive Indices
• Lateral Shift
• Total Internal Reflection and its Applications
• Critical Angle
• Optical fibre.

22. Refraction through prisms (3 Hours)
Minimum deviation/ Relation between Angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index / Deviation in small angle prism.

23. Lenses (4 Hours)
Spherical lenses/ thin lens formula/ Lens maker's formula/ Power of a lens/ Combination of thin lenses in contact.

24. Dispersion (3 Hours)
Spectrum/ Spectrometer/ Pure spectrum/ Dispersive power/ Achromatic lenses/ Condition for achromatic lenses in contact, Chromatic aberration Spherical aberration/ Scattering of light-blue color of the sky.

## 25. Optical instruments (5 Hours)

• The human eye
• Defects of vision and their correction
• Visual angle
• Angular magnification
• Magnifier
• Camera
• Compound microscope
• Astronomical Telescope (reflection and refractive type)

Unit-4 Electrostatics (20 teaching hours)

26. Electrostatics, Electric field & Potential (13 Hours)
Electric charge: Electric charges/ Conductors and insulators/ Charging by induction, Coulomb's law- Force between two point charges, Force between multiple electric charges.
Electric fields/ Calculation of electric field due to point charges/ Field lines. Gauss Law: Electric Flux/ Gauss Law and its application: Field of a charged sphere, line charge, plane sheet of charge.
Potential and potential difference, Potential due to a point charge/ Equipotential lines and surfaces/ Potential gradient/ Potential energy, Electron volt.

27. Capacitance and dielectrics (7 Hours)
Capacitance and capacitor/ Charging and discharging of capacitor through a resistor/ Parallel plate capacitor/ Combination of capacitors/ Energy of charged capacitor/ Effect of a dielectric/ Molecular theory of induced charges/ Polarization and displacement.