Botany 12 syllabus

Unit1 Anatomy and Physiology of Organisms (27 hour)

 Plant anatomy:
 Types of tissues, meristematic and permanent tissues,

Internal structure of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf, Secondary growth of dicot stem.

 Plant physiology:

(i) Water relation: Osmosis, diffusion, ascent of sap and transpiration

(ii) Photosynthesis: Site of photosynthesis, mechanism and factors affecting photosynthesis

(iii) Respiration : Types of respiration, mechanism and factors affecting respiration

(iv) Growth: Plant growth hormones: Auxins, Gibberellin, Cytokinin.

(v) Plant movement: Concept of growth and turgor movement.

Unit 2 Genetics (32 hour)

  • Elements of heredity and variation
  • Genetic material (DNA and RNA).
  • Genetie code Gene pool
  • Genetic expression and its repulation: Basis of Mendelian netics,
  • Mendel's laws of inheritans
  • Concept of incomplete dominance and condominance,
  • Multiple gene, Linkages.
  • Crossing over.
  • Mutation and its types and polyploidy.
  • Sex-linked inheritance (X-linked gene for eye colur of Drosophila and colour-blindness in man)

Unit 3 Developmental Biology (10 hour)

  • Reproduction and development of angiosperms - Asexual reproduction,
  • Pollination,
  • Development of male and female gametophyte,
  • Fertilization and development of embryo (dicot and monocot)

Unit 4 Application of Biology (6 hour)

  •  Introduction to biotechnology,
  • tissue culture,
  • concept of breeding technique Disease resistant plants,
  • green manures.
  • Genetic engineering and its application
  • Fermentation technology: alcoholic and antibiotic fermentation