Botany 11 syllabus

Unit 1 Introduction to Biology (5 hour)

  • Biochemically important organic and inorganic molecules (general concepts)
  • Carbohydrate
  • protein
  • lipid
  • nucleic acid
  • minerals and water

Unit 2 Cell Biology (15 hour)

  • The cell: The cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

         Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions.

  • Cell division: Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis.

 Unit 3 Biodiversity (40 hour)

Definition and scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdom classification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny. Five kingdom classification: Monera, Protist, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia

  • Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria.
  • Cyanobacteria: Nostoc - Structure, reproduction and economic importance.
  •  Mycota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast)
    Economic importance of fungi .
  • Plantae:
    Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogym
  • Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (morphology and life cycle).
  • Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle)
  • Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and Pinus structure and it's distribution
  • Angiosperm: Morphology: root, stem, leal, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families, Papilionoidae only. Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae,
  • Lichen: Introduction and economic importance
  • Virus: Structure and economic importance

Unit 4 Biota and their Environment(15 hour)

  • Ecology: Definition, abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
  • Concept of ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystems structural and functional aspects, food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession.
  • Bio-geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
  • Ecological imbalance and its consequences: Greenhouse effects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain
  • Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes).


           Forest conservatiea: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importance of afforestation and             hazards of deforestation Management of land and water