Unit 1 Introduction to Biology (5 hour)
- Biochemically important organic and inorganic molecules (general concepts)
- nucleic acid
- minerals and water
Unit 2 Cell Biology (15 hour)
- The cell: The cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,
Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions.
- Cell division: Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis.
Unit 3 Biodiversity (40 hour)
Definition and scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdom classification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny. Five kingdom classification: Monera, Protist, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia
- Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria.
- Cyanobacteria: Nostoc - Structure, reproduction and economic importance.
- Mycota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast)
Economic importance of fungi .
Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogym
- Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (morphology and life cycle).
- Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle)
- Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and Pinus structure and it's distribution
- Angiosperm: Morphology: root, stem, leal, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families, Papilionoidae only. Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae,
- Lichen: Introduction and economic importance
- Virus: Structure and economic importance
Unit 4 Biota and their Environment(15 hour)
- Ecology: Definition, abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
- Concept of ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystems structural and functional aspects, food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession.
- Bio-geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
- Ecological imbalance and its consequences: Greenhouse effects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain
- Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes).
Forest conservatiea: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importance of afforestation and hazards of deforestation Management of land and water